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References for Ultrasound Imaging in Women's Health Physiotherapy

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Berghmans LCM, Hendriks HJM, Bø K et al (1998) Conservative treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.  Br J Urol 82: 181-91.

Bø K, Finckenhagen HB (2003)  Is there any difference in measurement of pelvic floor muscle strength in supine and standing position? 
Acta Obstet et Gynecol Scand 2003; 82: 1120-24. 

Ferguson KL, McKey PL, Bishop KR et al (1990) Stress urinary incontinence:  Effect of pelvic muscle exercise.  Obstet Gynecol 75(4): 671-5.

Gilpin SA, Gosling JA, Smith AR, Warrell DW (1989) The pathogenesis of genitourinary prolapse and stress incontinence of urine.  A histological and histochemical study.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 96: 15-23.

 Govier FE et al (2001) Percutaneous afferent neuromodulation for the refractory overactive bladder: results of a multicenter study.  J Urol 165(4): 1193-8.

Keane DP, Sims TJ, Abrams P, Bailey AJ (1997) Analysis of collagen status in premenopausal nulliparous women with genuine stress incontinence.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104: 994-8.

 Klingler HC et al (2000) Use of peripheral neuromodulation of the S3 region for treatment of detrusor overactivity: aurodynamic-based study.  Urology 56(5): 766-71.
 
Lindstrom S, Fall M (1983) The neurophysiological basis of bladder inhibition in response to intravaginal electrical stimulation.  J Urol 129: 405-10.

Malissard M, Souquet J, Ele P (1993)  Urogenital re-education by electrostimulation: modelling for minimum energy computation.  Med & Biol Eng & Computing 31: 180-183

Miller J, Aston-Miller J, DeLancey J (1988) A pelvic muscle pre-contraction can reduce cough related urine loss in selected women with mild SUI.  J Am Geriatr Soc 46: 870-4.

Romanzi LJ, Chaikin DC, Blaivas JG (1999) The effect of genital prolapse on voiding.  J Urol 161: 581-6.

Smith AR, Hosker GL, Warrell DW (1989) The role of partial denervation of the pelvic floor in the aetiology of genito-urinary prolapse and stress incontinence of urine.  A neurophysiological study.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 96: 24-8.

 Sundin T, Carlsson CA, Kock NG (1974)  Detrusor inhibition induced from mechanical stimulation of pudendal nerve afferents.  Invest Urol 11: 374-8.

Theofrastous JP, Wyman JF, Bump RC et al and the Continence Program for Women Research Group (1997)  Relationship between urethral and vaginal pressures during pelvic muscle contractions.  Neurourol Urodynam 16: 553-8.

 Wagg A, Malone-Lee J (1998) The management of urinary incontinence in the elderly.  Br J Urol 82 (Suppl 1): 11-17.

 Wallace K (1994) Female pelvic floor functions, dysfunctions and behavioural approaches to treatment.  Clin Sports Med 13(2): 459-81.

 Wells TJ, Brink CA, Diokno AC, Wolfe R, Gillis GL (1991) Pelvic muscle exercise for stress urinary incontinence in elderly women.  J Am Geriatr Soc 39: 785-91.

 Wilson PD, Samarrai TA, Deakin M, Kolbe E, Brown ADG (1987) An objective assessment of physiotherapy for female genuine stress incontinence.  Br J Obstet Gynaecol 94: 575-82.