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References on Ultrasound Imaging in Rehabilitation

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Abdominal Muscles  

Critchley DJ & Coutts FJ.  Abdominal muscle function in chronic low back pain patients.  Physiother  2002;88:322-332.  

Hodges PW.  Is there a role for transversus abdominis in lumbo-pelvic stability? Man Ther 1999;4:74-86.

Rankin G, Stokes M & Newham DJ. Abdominal muscle size and symmetry in normal subjects.  Muscle & Nerve  34: 320-326.

Richardson CA, Snijders CJ, Hides JA, Damen L, Pas MS, Storm J. The relation between the transversus abdominis muscles, sacroiliac joint mechanics, and low back pain. Spine. 2002;27:399-405.

Richardson C, Jull G, Hodges P, Hides J. Therapeutic exercise for spinal segmental stabilization in low back pain. Churchill Livingstone, London, 1999.

Springer BA, Mielcarek BJ, Nesfield TK, Teyhen DS Relationships among lateral abdominal muscles, gender, Body Mass Index, and hand dominance.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2006; 36:289-297.

Teyhen DS, Miltenberger CE, Deiters HM, Del Toro YM, Pulliam JN, Childs JD, Boyles RE, Flynn TW.  The use of ultrasound imaging of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver in subjects with low back pain.  J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2005; 35:346-355


Biofeedback using Ultrasound Imaging

Hides J, Richardson C, Jull G, Davies SE. Ultrasound imaging in rehabilitation. Austral J Physiother 1995a; 41: 187-193.

Hides JA, Richardson CA & Jull GA.  Multifidus muscle recovery is not automatic after resolution of acute, first-episode low back pain. Spine 1996; 21: 2763-2769.

Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA.  Use of real-time ultrasound imaging for feedback in rehabilitation.  Man Ther  1998; 3:125-131

Hodges PW, Pengel LHM, Herbert RD & Gandevia SC. Measurement of muscle contraction with ultrasound imaging. Muscle & Nerve 2003, 27:682-692.   


Geometry and Architecture– angle of fibre pennation and length

Herbert RS & Gandevia SC. Changes in pennation with joint angle and muscle torque: in vivo measurements in human brachialis muscle. J Physiol 1995; 484: 523-532.

Kawakawi Y, Abi T & Fukunaga T. Muscle-fibre pennation angles are greater in hypertrophied than in normal muscles. J Appl Physiol 1993; 74: 2740-2744.

Rutherford OM & Jones DA.  Measurement of fibre pennation using ultrasound in the human quadriceps in vivo. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992; 65: 433-437.

Shortland AP, Harris CA, Gough M et al.  Architecture of the medial gastrocnemius in children with spastic diplegia. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2002; 44:158-163.


Lumbar Multifidus

Coldron Y, Stokes M & Cook K.  Lumbar multifidus muscle size does not differ whether imaging is performed in prone or side lying.  Manual Therapy  2003, 8:161-165.

Hides J, Cooper DH, Stokes MJ. Diagnostic ultrasound imaging for measurement of the lumbar multifidus muscle in normal young adults. Physio Theory Pract 1992; 8: 19-26.

Hides JA, Jull GA, Richardson CA. Long-term effects of specific stabilizing exercises for first-episode low back pain. Spine. 2001;26:E243-248.

Hides JA, Stokes MJ, Saide M et al. Evidence of lumbar multifidus muscle wasting ipsilateral to symptoms in patients with acute-sub-acute low back pain. Spine 1994; 19: 165-172.

Hides et al 1996 – see Biofeedback refs above.

Lumbar Multifidus cont./

Kiesel, K. B., Uhl, T. L., Underwood, F. B. & Nitz, A. J. Measurement of Select Trunk Muscle Activation During Induced Pain. Man Ther 2006 In press

Kennelly KP & Stokes MJ. Pattern of Asymmetry of paraspinal muscle size in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1993; 18: 9113-917.

Stokes M, Rankin G & Newham D.  Ultrasound imaging of lumbar multifidus: normal reference ranges for measurements and practical guidance on the technique. Manual Therapy 2005: 10(2): 116-126.


Mechanisms of Muscle Dysfunction – investigated using ultrasound imaging

Hides et al., 1994 – See lumbar multifidus above

Stokes M & Young A. Measurement of quadriceps cross-sectional area by ultrasonography: a description of the technique and its applications in physiotherapy. Physio Pract 1986; 2: 31-36.


Posterior Cervical Muscles

Lee J-P, Tseng W-Y I, Shau Y-W, Wang C-L, Wang H-K, Wang S-F.  Measurement of segmental cervical multifidus contraction by ultrasonography in asymptomatic adults, Manual Therapy (2006),  In press, available - doi:10.1016/j.math.2006.07.008

Rankin G, Stokes M & Newham D.  Size and shape of the posterior neck muscles measured by ultrasound imaging: normal values in males and females of different ages. Manual Therapy 2005; 10(2):108-115.

Rezasoltani A, Kallinen M, lki E, Vihko V.  Neck semispinalis capitis muscle size in sitting and prone positions measured by real-time ultrasonography.  Clin Rehabil 1998; 12: 36-44.


Reviews on muscle imaging

Hides et al 1995a – see biofeedback above

Stokes M, Hides J & Nassiri D. Musculoskeletal ultrasound imaging: diagnostic and treatment aid in rehabilitation.  Physical Therapy Reviews. 1997; 2: 73-92. 

Teyhen D. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther; 2006 A1-A17.  


Symmetry of muscle size between-sides

Close PJ, Stokes MJ, L’Estrange PR et al.  Ultrasonography of masseter muscle size in normal young adults. J Oral Rehab 1995; 22: 129-134.

Hides et al., 1994 & 1996 - see lumbar multifidus above

Kelly SJ & Stokes MJ. Symmetry of anterior tibial muscle size measured by real-time ultrasound imaging in young females. Clin Rehab 1993; 7: 222-228.

Kennelly & Stokes 1993 – see lumbar multifidus above

Stokes et al., 2005 – see lumbar multifidus above

Young A, Stokes M, Crowe M.  The size and strength of the quadriceps muscle of old and young women. European J Clinical Investigation 1984; 14: 282-287.

Young A, Stokes M, Crowe M. The size and strength of the quadriceps muscles of old and young men. Clin Physiol 1985; 5: 145-154.


Validity and Reliability Studies

Hides JA, Richardson CA, Jull GA. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography of the lumbar multifidus muscle. Spine 1995b; 20: 54-58.

Rankin G & Stokes MJ.  Reliability of assessment tools in rehabilitation: an illustration of appropriate statistical analysis.  Clinical Rehabilitation 1998; 12: 187-199.

Sipilä S & Suominen H.  Muscle ultrasonography and computed tomography in elderly trained and untrained women.  Muscle Nerve 1993; 16: 294-300.